See also Alphabet and Numbers/Counting Books on the picture book page.
Math in Children's Literature (Nancy Padak, Ohio Literacy Resource Center, Kent State University): Author, title and publication info for more than 100 books in these categories: addition, counting, estimating, fractions, geometry, graphing, measurement, money, multiplication and division, and number sense. Updated Oct. 2006.
Children's picture books that teach mathematics concepts (Christchurch City Libraries, NZ): Recommended for children aged 4 - 6. Lists about 65 books, with author, title, and summary for each, in these categories: Addition, Counting, Division, Fractions, Geometry, Measurement, Multiplication, Sets, Size, Subtraction, Time, and Other Concepts.
Suggested Children's Books that Relate to Mathematics (Janice L. Flake): Author, title, publication info for about 40 children's books useful for teaching math concepts, in alpha order from Dinosaurs are different by Aliki to More incredible true adventures by D.L. Wulffson.